e-book Self Perception (International Perspectives on Individual Differences)

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Rogers also hypothesized that psychologically healthy people actively move away from roles created by others' expectations, and instead look within themselves for validation. On the other hand, neurotic people have "self-concepts that do not match their experiences. They are afraid to accept their own experiences as valid, so they distort them, either to protect themselves or to win approval from others. The self-categorization theory developed by John Turner states that the self-concept consists of at least two "levels": In other words, one's self-evaluation relies on self-perceptions and how others perceive them.

Self-concept can alternate rapidly between the personal and social identity. The self-concept is an internal model that uses self-assessments in order to define one's self-schemas. A collection of self-schemas make up one's overall self-concept.

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For example, the statement "I am lazy" is a self-assessment that contributes to self-concept. Statements such as "I am tired", however, would not be part of someone's self-concept, since being tired is a temporary state and therefore cannot become a part of a self-schema. A person's self-concept may change with time as reassessment occurs, which in extreme cases can lead to identity crises. According to Carl Rogers, the self-concept has three different components: Researchers debate over when self-concept development begins. Some assert that gender stereotypes and expectations set by parents for their children affect children's understanding of themselves by approximately age 3.

At this point, children are developmentally prepared to interpret their own feelings and abilities, as well as receive and consider feedback from peers, teachers, and family. Generally, self-concept changes more gradually, and instead, existing concepts are refined and solidified. For example, while children might evaluate themselves "smart", teens might evaluate themselves as "not the smartest, but smarter than average.

Academic self-concept refers to the personal beliefs about their academic abilities or skills. Some researchers suggest that, to raise academic self-concept, parents and teachers need to provide children with specific feedback that focuses on their particular skills or abilities.

PHILOSOPHY - Mind: Personal Identity (The Narrative Self) [HD]

Physical ability includes concepts such as physical strength and endurance, while appearance refers to attractiveness. The bodily changes during puberty, in conjunction with the various psychological of this period, makes adolescence especially significant for the development of physical self-concept. It has even been suggested that adolescent involvement in competitive sports increases physical self-concept. Worldviews about one's self in relation to others differ across and within cultures. This is not to say those in an independent culture do not identify and support their society or culture, there is simply a different type of relationship.

One of the social norms within a Western, independent culture is consistency, which allows each person to maintain their self-concept over time. A small study done in Israel showed that the divide between independent and interdependent self-concepts exists within cultures as well. Mid-level merchants in an urban community were compared to those in a kibbutz collective community. When asked to describe themselves, they primarily used descriptions of their own personal traits without comparison to others within their group. They used hobbies and preferences to describe their traits, which is more frequently seen in interdependent cultures as these serve as a means of comparison with others in their society.

There was also a large focus on residence, lending to the fact they share resources and living space with the others from the kibbutz. These types of differences were also seen in a study done with Swedish and Japanese adolescents. African American and White students. For one group a stereotype threat was introduced while the other served as a control. The findings were that academic performance of the African American students was significantly lower than their White counterparts when a stereotype threat was perceived after controlling for intellectual ability.

Since the inception of stereotype threat, other research has demonstrated the applicability of this idea to other groups. The same prejudice that exists in stereotype threat also exists in the Education system as it serves its communities, families, and individuals. These discriminatory practices in schools are the center of various educational and psychological researchers.


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The research aims to increase equity in the classroom as well as academic achievement among students in minority groups. More specifically, the hidden curriculum is an unintended transmission of social constructs that operate in the social environment of an educational setting or classroom. This opens up a pathway for deficit thinking to rule and where a growth mindset is diminished.

Research from , inspired by the differences in self-concept across cultures, suggested that men tend to be more independent, while women tend to be more interdependent. Women utilize relational interdependence identifying more with one-to-one relationships or small cliques , while men utilize collective interdependence defining themselves within the contexts of large groups.

For instance, in a study conducted in , men were found to consider themselves more achievement and financially oriented as well as more competitive than their female counterparts. In contrast to this, the women were more likely to view themselves as sociable, moral, dependent and less assertive than the men.

These differences potentially affect the individual's subjective well-being. Gender differences in interdependent environments appear in early childhood: Girls tend to prefer one-on-one dyadic interaction, forming tight, intimate bonds, while boys prefer group activities. During this developmental stage, boys who develop early tend to have a more positive view of themselves as opposed to early developing females who view themselves more negatively. England argues that for the gender revolution to be complete, not only should traditionally male professions and domains be open to women but traditionally female domains should be increasingly occupied by men.

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    Sanaz Talaifar and William Swann

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    Explaining Individual Differences in Third-Person Perception

    Journal of personality and social psychology , 56 6 , The good life of the powerful: The experience of power and authenticity enhances subjective well-being. Psychological Science , 24 , — Set within the framework of a conceptual synthesis of the research, the book offers a contemporary review of current thinking in the field. The contributors provide recent, relevant, and alternative perspectives for psychologists and applied scientists. Drawing upon an international field of established and new researchers, the series presents both theoretical and applied work looking at individual difference in human performance Greenwood Publishing Group Bolero Ozon.