Allegro Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Molto commodo Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Andantino Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Prestissimo possibile Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Nicht schnell, leise vorzutragen Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Ziemlich bewegt Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Lebhaft Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Ziemlich langsam, empfindungsvoll vorzutragen Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Sehr schnell Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Langsam, ausdrucksvoll Robert Schumann; Dana Ciocarlie. Pitches are the only thing not organised in sevens.
However, the score was not finished in time for Tudor to learn it, and subsequently his international touring did not leave him in a position to do so. Consequently, the piece was finally premiered by Frederic Rzewski on 10 October , during the third Settimano Internazionale Nuova Musica in Palermo.
On 22 December Rzewski made the first recording for commercial release, in the Ariola sound studios in Berlin Henck b , 5—6. The mobile structure and graphic layout of the piece resembles that of Morton Feldman 's Intermission 6 for 1 or 2 pianos of , in which 15 fragments are distributed on a single page of music with the instruction: In the same year, Earle Brown had composed Twenty-five Pages for 1—25 pianists, in which the pages are to be arranged in a sequence chosen by the performer s , and each page may be performed either side up and events within each two-line system may be read as either treble or bass clef Anon.
When David Tudor, who at the time was preparing a version of Feldman's piece, was in Cologne in , Stockhausen asked him,. Tudor and Schonfield , Apart from the layout on the page, Feldman's piece has nothing in common with Stockhausen's composition. Rather than rhythmic cells, its components are single tones and chords, with no rhythmic or dynamic indications Frisius , The performer may begin with any fragment, and continue to any other, proceeding through the labyrinth until a fragment has been reached for the third time, when the performance ends.
Markings for tempo, dynamics, etc. Though composed with a complex serial plan, the pitches have nothing to do with twelve-tone technique but instead are derived from the proportions of the previously composed rhythms Truelove , —25; Truelove , The durations are founded on a set of matrices all of which have six rows, but with numbers of columns varying from two to seven. These matrices "amount to sets of two-dimensional 'scales'" Truelove , The first row of each of these rhythm matrices consists of a sequence of simple arithmetic duration values: These "two-dimensional scales" are then permuted systematically Truelove , , — , and the six resulting, increasingly larger matrices were combined together to form the columns of a new, complex Final Rhythm Matrix of six columns and six rows Truelove , , — Stockhausen's design appears to have been to select an equal number of fragments from each row degree of complexity of subdivision and each column overall duration of the fragment , except for the first column shortest duration and last row most complex subdivision.
This is suggested by the fact that he originally selected column 6, row 3 for the last fragment marked with an x in the illustration , then changed his mind in favor of the lower-right cell Truelove , When writing out the fragments, Stockhausen doubled the note values from the ones in the matrix Truelove , , so that, in the score, fragments 1—4, 5—7, 8—10, 11—13, 14—16, and 17—19 have overall durations of 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, and 28 quarter notes, respectively.
Within each of these groups there is a "main text" of melody or chords. Interspersed into these are groups of grace-note chords and clusters, as well as tremolos, trills, and harmonics, and these two levels are constructed independently Toop , One of the earliest analysts of this piece, Konrad Boehmer , 71—84 , observed the distinct sets of group durations but, apparently not having seen the sketches, established a different taxonomy and made a mistake counting the duration of one group. Since Boehmer's labels have been used by a number of later writers Hellfer ; Rigoni ; Trajano , the correspondence with the numeration from the sketches may be useful:.
The nineteen fragments are then distributed over the single, large page of the score in such a way as to minimize any possible influence on spontaneity of choice and promote statistical equality Boehmer , Tudor wrote to apologise, and Steinecke accepted that he would have to settle for the European premiere, but then Tudor planned to play the piece in Paris two weeks before Darmstadt.
However, Tudor fell seriously ill early in July and had to cancel his European tour, and so the European premiere took place on 28 July , the last day of the courses, in the Orangerie at Darmstadt, in two different versions played by the pianist Paul Jacobs and billed in the programme book as the world premiere Misch and Bandur , , , — However, this set never got beyond the planning stages Toop , The pieces from XII to XIX are all associated with the opera cycle Licht — , and appear not to continue the original organizational plan.
More By Dirk Herten
All of the material of the Licht cycle is made from three melodic strands, each called a " formula " by Stockhausen, and each identified with one of the three archetypal protagonists of Licht: Michael, Eve, and Lucifer. In addition to a basic melody the "nuclear" version of the formula , each line is also interrupted at intervals by inserted ornamental figurations, including soft noises called "coloured silences". These strands are superimposed to form a contrapuntal web which Stockhausen calls the " superformula " Kohl , — The superformula is used at all levels of the composition, from the background structure of the entire cycle down to the details of individual scenes Kohl , The first three of these pieces are drawn from scenes in which the piano is dominant in the opera Frisius This scene is formed according to the second note of Michael's "Thursday" segment of the Licht superformula, an E divided into three parts: The three superimposed polyphonic melodies "formulas" of the superformula are registrally rotated in these three statements, so that the Eve formula is highest for the first section, the Lucifer formula is highest for the second, and the Michael formula is uppermost for the third.
This corresponds to the dramaturgy, as Michael recounts to the examining Jury his life on earth from the successive points of view of his mother, representing Eve, his father, representing Lucifer, and himself Kohl , The upper line in each case is also the most richly ornamented of the three.
7 Klavierstücke in Fughettenform, Op.126 (Schumann, Robert)
Each melody begins with a different characteristic interval followed by a semitone in the opposite direction, and this three-note figure continues to predominate in each section: In the opera, Michael is portrayed in the first examination by the tenor singer, in the second by the trumpet with additional accompaniment of basset-horn , and in the third by a dancer. He is accompanied throughout the scene by a pianist. The surface is created primarily from the "ornaments" and "improvisations" of the superformula Kohl , In the version for piano solo, the tenor, trumpet, and basset-horn material is either incorporated into the piano texture, or is hummed, whistled, or spoken by the pianist, adding to the polyphonic layers played on the keyboard.
The vocal noises, as well as sweeping glissandi and individual plucked notes made directly on the piano strings, come directly from the superformula and constitute what Stockhausen calls "coloured silences"—that is, rests that are "enlivened" by brief accented notes or gliding noises.
Because of the proportioning series of the three sections, the middle one is the shortest and most animated, while the last is the slowest and longest of the three Frisius The work was written for the composer's daughter Majella, and the solo piano version was premiered by her on 10 June in the Teatro Regio in Turin Stockhausen a , The key components of this piece are sounded at the very start: These five contrapuntal layers are developed from the three-layer Licht superformula in three steps. First, the three layers of the sixth, "Saturday" segment bars 14—16 are extracted for the background structure of the opera Samstag aus Licht.
Second, a fourth layer, consisting of complete statement of the "nuclear" form of the Lucifer formula—the eleven pitches of the Lucifer formula, with the basic durations but without rhythmic subdivisions or the seven Akzidenzen inserted between the main segments "scale", "improvisation", "echo", "coloured silences", etc. Third, for the opening portion, corresponding to just the first scene of the opera, a fifth layer is added. The rhythms of the five layers divide the total duration of the piece The density of rhythmic activity in these formulas is progressively increased by dividing the notes in each of the five sections by the first five members of the Fibonacci series: Finally, a process of "extreme compressions which begin to destroy the form to the point of its no longer being perceptible so as to bring about silence and motionless sound" is imposed over the course of the work.
This is accomplished through a serial permutation scheme of compressions Stauchungen , stretchings Dehnungen , and rests, designed to achieve maximal dispersion of the erosions so as to avoid progressive modification of the same elements each time around Kohl , —17; Rigoni , 56— This gradual process, supported by the steady rise in pitch from one section to the next of the Lucifer formula, is paralleled by the descent from the upper register of the Eve formula, characterised by intervals of thirds.
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A third melody the Michael formula remains in the highest register throughout, and is exempted from the distorting process. Shortly before the end of the piece, the Lucifer and Eve formulas converge.
7 Klavierstücke in Fughettenform, Op.126
At this point, the Eve melody asserts itself and, the formal process now completed, the music fades away and the piano lid is lowered Frisius ; Kohl , The piece is dedicated to her, on the occasion of her twentieth birthday. With the addition in of a part for girls' choir, it became act 2, scene 2 of Montag aus Licht Stockhausen a , , Two months before composing this first component part of Montag aus Licht , Stockhausen said:.
I have had the feeling for some time that Monday will be very different—very new for me too, because I have the feeling Monday is the reverse, because it's the birth.
So it's the reverse of everything that I have done up to now. Most probably all the formulas will be upside-down, will be mirrored: I think all the structural material all of a sudden is going to change drastically in the detail. Stockhausen and Kohl , Stockhausen made two major changes to the superformula when adapting it for the piano here. First, the Eve formula the middle line of the original superformula is transposed into the upper register, exchanging with the Michael formula which is lowered to the middle, while the Lucifer formula remains in its original position in the bass.
This places the Eve formula in the foreground, which is appropriate because in the Licht cycle Monday is Eve's day Frisius ; Kiec , Second, while the Michael formula is essentially unaltered, both the Eve and Lucifer layers are made to seem to be inverted, by a process that Stockhausen called Schein-Spiegelung , or "apparent inversion" Stockhausen a , This is accomplished by exchanging some of the neighbouring core tones of the melodies.
This is followed by an ascending scale-like figure, filling in the same interval. The Eve formula, now richly ornamented, similarly exchanges notes so that its originally rising major third, C to E, instead descends from E to C.
Klavierstücke (Stockhausen) - Wikipedia
In one later, exposed place, similar exchanges cause the passage to bear a strong resemblance to the interval sequence with which the Michael formula closes Frisius Beginning with XV "Synthi-Fou", , which is part of the ending of Dienstag aus Licht , Stockhausen began to substitute the synthesizer which he also somewhat misleadingly called elektronisches Klavier in place of the traditional piano, since the German word Klavier historically could refer to any keyboard instrument, and Stockhausen saw the history of the piano logically continued by the synthesizer Stockhausen , He also began including an electronic part on tape.
The electronic music is played back over eight loudspeakers, which are arranged in a cube around the listeners. Sounds move round about, diagonally, from above to below, and below to above, in eight simultaneous layers with various rates of speed. And Synthi-Fou plays—on four keyboards and with nine pedals—a new music. The change to synthesizers opened up a host of new technical possibilities. The relationship of the keys to the production of sound is radically different from the piano. Synthesizers and samplers are no longer dependent on finger dexterity.
Stockhausen , — The score is dedicated to the composer's son, Simon Stockhausen, who gave the premiere performance at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne on 5 October The piece was written for the Micheli Competition, who had commissioned a seven-minute piano piece. It was first played in October to the jury by the three finalists in that competition.
According to the preface to the score, the composer's offer to rehearse individually with the pianists was rejected, so he did not hear the result but was told afterward that "they were completely lost and could not imagine how the piece should be played". The score is dedicated to "all pianists who do not only play the traditional stringed piano but who also include electronic keyboard instruments in their instrumentarium". Although the piece is precisely notated, there is no specific part for the keyboardist to perform. Instead, the performer must choose which notes to perform synchronously with the meticulously notated electronic music Kiec ,